پایگاه اطلاع رسانی آیت الله ابراهیم امینی قدس سره

Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil

Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil

Enjoining Good means to ask others to perform good deeds and Forbidding Evil means to restrain others from inappropriate or evil acts. ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is one of the most important obligatory duties in Islam. Fulfillment of some obligatory acts and avoiding many of the prohibited acts is done through the performance of this duty. Therefore, it is highly emphasized in verses and traditions:

وَلْتَکُنْ مِّنْکُمْ أُمَّةٌ یَدْعُونَ إِلَى‏ الْخَیْرِ وَیَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ یَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ وَأُوْلَِکَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ‏

And from among you there should be a party who invite to good and enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong, and these it is that shall be successful.” (3:104)


یَا بُنَىَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ وَ اصْبِرْ عَلَى‏ مَآ أَصَابَکَ إِنَّ ذَ لِکَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O my son! keep up prayer and enjoin the good and forbid the evil, and bear patiently that which befalls you; surely these acts require courage.” (31:17)


کُنْتُمْ خَیْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ

You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men; you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in Allah…” (3:110)

Muhammad bin Umar says: I heard Imam Ali Reza (a) say: It is necessary for you to enjoin good and forbid evil, otherwise evil and mischievous people would gain dominance over you, at that time when the righteous supplicate, their supplications will not be effective.[204]

Muhammad bin Arafa says: I heard Imam Ali Reza (a) say quoting from the Messenger of Allah (s) that he said: When my Ummah gives up the duty of ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’, you should expect occurrence of terrible tragedies.[205]

Huzaifah has narrated that the Holy Prophet (s) said: By the one in whose hands my life is, you must enjoin good and forbid evil; if not, Almighty Allah would send a chastisement on you in such a way that if anyone of you calls Almighty Allah, your supplication will not be accepted.[206]

Abu Saeed Khudri has narrated from the Holy Prophet (s) that he said: The greatest Jihad is a true statement, which is made in the presence of a tyrant ruler.[207]

Jabir has narrated from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a) that he said: In the last period of time, a group of ostentatious people would appear. They would be engrossed in recitation of Quran, piety and worship acts, but would be ignorant and foolish. They will not consider ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ as obligatory, except when it may save them from harm. They would make excuses for its avoidance. They will emulate the mistakes of scholar and their bad character. They will perform prayers and fasting and all those acts, which do not harm their life and property. Since even prayer is harmful to their property and bodies, they give it up that as well; like they have given up the highest and the noblest of the obligations.

‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is a great Islamic duty as all other obligatory duties are fulfilled through it. When they omit ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’, they become eligible for divine chastisement and the punishment befalls them. Thus, the righteous in the house of evil doers and children in the house of the aged would be destroyed. ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is the practice of the prophets and style of the righteous. It is a great duty as all obligatory duties are fulfilled through it and become the means of peace and lawful earnings. Oppressions would come back to their perpetrators. The earth would be inhabited and revenge would be taken from the enemies and matters would become firm.

Thus, you must hate evil from your heart and perform ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ from your tongue; humiliate the evil-doers and do not at all fear criticism in the path of God. If they take lesson from it and refer to rightfulness, no harm would come to them, because ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is only about those who oppress people and who create mischief in the land and they would be given a painful chastisement. Perform Jihad against them and hate them from the depth of your heart. Your aim in this act should be to gain the pleasure of Allah and not to get hegemony, acquire wealth and to oppress others. Continue your Jihad till they submit to the truth and be obedient to Almighty Allah.[208]

On the basis of this, it is known that ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ are important Islamic duties and responsibilities and Islam has greatly emphasized performance of this duty. And this matter is supposed to be a distinctive quality of the Islamic Ummah, because Muslims, in addition of being watchful of their selves also avoid being besmeared by others.

In any case, Muslims are duty bound to be vigilant for each other, they should urge each other to perform good deeds and to refrain from evil deeds. If this mutual vigilance is observed in the right way, it would make Muslim society safe from being imbued with oppression and moral corruption and will be guided to perfection and moral excellence.


The Holy Quran says:

وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِیَآءُ بَعْضٍ یَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَیَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ

And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil…” (9:71)

On the basis of this, all should make efforts to strengthen faith, to promote recognition of duties, promoting Islamic values, acting on individual and social duties, development of religious culture, prevention of moral and social corruption and absence of trespassing on the rights of other and create the best and the righteous communities in the world, so that they be exemplars and models for others.

Islam, in addition to this, has made Muslims duty bound to be the medium nation and it has also urged the other people of the world to perform good deeds and refrained them from evil deeds. It has confronted against polytheism, infidelity and materialism and invited the people of the world to monotheism and observance of social justice.


The Holy Quran says:

هُوَ الَّذِى أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى‏ وَدِینِ الْحَقِّ لِیُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّینِ کُلِّهِ وَلَوْ کَرِهَ الْمُشْرِکُونَ‏

He it is Who sent His Apostle with guidance and the religion of truth, that He might cause it to prevail over all religions, though the polytheists may be averse.” (9:33)


أَلَّذِینَ إن مَّکَّنَّهُمْ فِى الْأَرْضِ أَقَامُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَءَاتَوُاْ الزَّکَوةَ وَ أَمَرُواْبِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْاْ عَنِ‏الْمُنْکَرِ وَلِلَّهِ عَقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ

Those who, should We establish them in the land, will keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and enjoin good and forbid evil; and Allah’s is the end of affairs.” (22:41)


وَکَذَ لِکَ جَعَلْنَکُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطاً لِّتَکُونُواْ شُهَدَآءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَ یَکُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَیْکُمْ شَهِیداً

And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Apostle may be a bearer of witness to you…” (2:143)


On the basis of this, guidance and instruction of the people of the world is a great and sensitive responsibility, whose performance requires complete preparation and necessary prefaces, some of which are hinted below:

1. Accurate and complete identification of good and bad deeds.

2. Full awareness of the political, economic, social, religious, moral circumstances of the people of the world.

3. Sufficient awareness of religions, schools of thought and their manners, customs and beliefs.

4. Preparing and using strong modes of communication to lead and guide the people of the world in different languages.

5. Publication of newspapers and academic religious magazines in different world languages.

6. Compilation and translation of necessary and appropriate books and their extensive distribution in the world.

7. Nurturing the missionaries who are conversant with Islam and different languages and sending them to the countries of the world.

8. Establishment of a center and formation of a powerful organization for propagation of Islamic culture in the world with a large budget and extensive and widespread possibilities.


Ranks of Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil

Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil is performed in some stages and in some ways:

First stage: Denial and detestability of an evil in one mind. When a Muslim sees a person committing an evil act, he should be restless of this deed in his own mind and he should express his hatred to it, because it is possible that he may give up that act and would not need other stages.

Second stage: Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil through the tongue. In this stage, he orders the opponent to perform a good act or to avoid evil deeds. In the initial stage, he should use a pleasing and kind mannerism and if it is not effective, it should be through a stern and concerned tone and if that is also of no use, it should be through scolding and reproach and if that is also not effective, through rudeness and threats.

Third stage: Through use of force and strength. The last stage of ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is physical restraint, which in the end is joined to scolding and rudeness and that is also having weak, medium and severe stages, although it is subject to the condition that rights should not be trespassed.

Aim of ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ is to restore to health and to purify the society in every possible way.

Although for ‘Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil’ one can make use of severe and tough punishments also, like application of Islamic penalties, blood monies and punishments etc. But these stages are only within the ambit of judicial machinery and administrative powers of the Islamic government.[209]
Circumstances of Muslims of the world and our responsibilities

In spite of the fact that the Muslim population of the world exceeds one billion and they live in the most sensitive areas of the world from the aspect of natural resources and manpower and were owners of culture and civilization and for centuries ruled the world in a powerful and glorious way and borne the standard of knowledge and culture, but regretfully, they gradually lost their power and capability and reached this present sad condition. Below we hint at their tragic circumstances:

In spite of the fact that Islam considers all Muslims of the world as a single community, regrettably under the influence of ignorance and foolishness communal and racial bias, selfishness, conspiracies and discord created by the enemies, it has been divided into small and big countries in such way that they have no unity and cooperation between them.

In these disunited countries Islam is not dominant; on the contrary, the ruler of every country has handed over the administrative powers to irreligious powers and enemies of Islam and Muslims.

Powerful countries of infidelity and hegemony have overpowered Muslim countries and seized control on all their matters.

They even interfere in their problems like selection of political, economic, academics and industry, lawmaking, agriculture and animal husbandry, arts and crafts, defense and even in religious affairs and have them under their control as well.

They take over their natural resources at paltry cost and in return give in return useless commodities and unnecessary luxury items and use those countries as markets for their goods.

They make Islamic countries suspicious of each other and create discord among them, not long ago they pitied one country against the other so that it may seek assistance from them to procure weapons and that it may accept their conditions and become their protectorate. At that time, they pose themselves to be their best supporters. They design their defense bases, sign common defense treaties and hold joint military exercises.

Regretfully, most Muslim countries are involved in these hardships and directly or indirectly live as vassals of one of the oppressive and infidel countries and sometimes they are pleased of these circumstances and feel proud of it.

On the other hand, Muslim countries are indifferent to each other; there are no friendly and cooperative relations among them and they do not trust each other. Instead of trusting each other, they rely on enemies of Islam and sign pacts of friendship and cooperation with them.

In most Muslim countries, the rulers themselves put up the regime for sale, which is not only not in defense of Islam and values of Islam, on the contrary it suppresses Islamic movements with all strength and with such a strong hand as if it is ruled over by cruel infidels and idolaters.

It was due to conspiracies hatched by the enemies of Islam and indifference of Islamic countries that the Holy land of Palestine and Masjid Aqsa was seized from Muslims by the Zionist traitors and ten years have passed and the usurpers are still ruling over it. With extensive help of infidel and hegemonic soldiers they are equipped with advanced weaponry and their military base has developed into the largest base and has posed threat to the Muslim world. International hegemony is also defending its existence with all its power.

One of the best evidence of enmity and hatred of international hegemony towards Muslims are the furious attacks of America on Muslim countries and slaying of innocent people and the destruction of their homes, whereas it considers itself to be at the forefront in confronting terrorism.


Is this civilization and defense of human rights?!

Another example of enmity of infidelity and tyranny with Islam and Muslims and aggression against religion is attack on the Muslim countries of Afghanistan and Iraq, which is still in progress and hundreds of thousands have been killed.

Emphasis of the West to spread debased culture and immoralities in Islamic countries and spending enormous budgets in this regard and instigation and support to writers, who are opposed to Islam to write and publish books against Islam; defending them under the pretext of freedom of speech and defense of human rights etc. are all a part of a well designed conspiracy to wipe off Islam.

In any case, the enemies of religion, started their enmity to Islam and Muslims from the time of the Prophet of Islam (s) and it continues to this day, in such a way that in the present age, it has become more consistent and severe and they have with all their strength, risen up to battle against Islam and Muslims. So much so, that in order to achieve their objectives they employ instruments of politics, economy, culture, arts, academics, military, rights, crimes and destroying generations, because they are faced with awakening and movements among Muslims and they perceive danger.

Insufficient and regrettable circumstances and conditions of the Muslim world, pains the heart of every liberal person and it causes discomfort to every pure conscience.

Here the following questions arise:

1. Is the Prophet of Islam (s) pleased with these circumstances or not?

2. Why we have become like this?

3. What is the solution?

4. Who is responsible?

Complete answers of the above questions require detailed explanation, but here we would be content with only brief and condensed replies:

Is the Prophet of Islam pleased with these circumstances?

No Muslim, having insight would deny that the present dire circumstances of the Muslim world are not satisfactory for the Prophet of Islam (s). How can the Prophet of Islam (s) be pleased that his community should remain under the domination of infidelity and hegemony? And the Islamic lands should be under the exploitation and usurpation of infidels and that their Muslim owners should be rendered homeless? How he can be satisfied that his Ummah should surrender its natural resources to the enemies of Islam at such a paltry cost and after that they have to beg the same enemies for help and assistance? Or that they deprive their own people from the basic necessities in order to use welfare funds for financing the arms race and purchase of destructive weapons, which are sometimes also used against neighboring countries.

No, the Prophet of Islam (s) can never be satisfied with these tragic and degrading circumstances and he does not like his Ummah to be in such a condition.

Why have we become like this?

This has happened, because we have not acted on the commands of Islam and Quran, because Quran considers all Muslims to be a single community and it says:

وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِیعاً وَلَا تَفَرَّقُواْ

“And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited.” (3:103)


وَأَطِیعُواْ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَنَزَعُواْ فَتَفْشَلُواْ وَتَذْهَبَ رِیحُکُمْ وَ اصْبِرُواْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّبِرِینَ‏

And obey Allah and His Apostle and do not quarrel for then you will be weak in hearts and your power will depart, and be patient; surely Allah is with the patient.” (8:46)


وَلَنْ یَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ للِکَفِرینَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِینَ سَبِیلاً

“…and Allah will by no means give the unbelievers a way against the believers.” (4:141)


الَّذِینَ یَتَّخِذُونَ الْکَفِرِینَ أَوْلِیَآءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ أَیَبْتَغُونَ عِنْدَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِیعاً

Those who take the unbelievers for guardians rather than believers. Do they seek honor from them? Then surely all honor is for Allah.” (4:139)

But Muslims become friendly to the infidels in order to gain honor and power and open venues of their exploitation and domination.

Quran says:

یَأَیُّهَا الَّذِینَ ءامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ الْکَفِرینَ أَوْلِیَآءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِینَ أَتُرِیدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ عَلَیْکُمْ سُلْطَناً مُّبِیناً

O you who believe! do not take the unbelievers for friends rather than the believers; do you desire that you should give to Allah a manifest proof against yourselves?” (4:144)

It has also said:

یَأَیُّهَا الَّذِینَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ الْیَهُودَ وَالنَّصَرَى‏ أَوْلِیَآءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِیَآءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَن یَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنکُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَایَهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الظَّلِمِینَ‏

O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people.” (5:51)

But Muslims have violated the clear and absolute commands of Quran and gave to the deadly enemies of Islam, oaths of friendship and cooperation in the fields of administration, economics, culture and politics. Quran says:

وَ قَتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِکِینَ کَآفَّةً کَمَا یُقَتِلُونَکُمْ کَآفَّةً وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ ‏الْمُتَّقِینَ‏

…and fight the polytheists all together as they fight you all together, and know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil). (9:36)


In the same way, it says:

فَقَتِلُواْ أَئِمَّةَ الْکُفْرِ إِنَّهُمْ لَآ أَیْمَنَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ یَنتَهُونَ‏

…then fight the leaders of unbelief - surely their oaths are nothing - so that they may desist.” (9:12)

But Muslims have abandoned the important duty of Jihad and chosen a life of degradation over Jihad and honorable martyrdom in the way of God and instead of Jihad, they form pacts of friendship and cooperation.


The Holy Quran says:

وَلْتَکُنْ مِّنْکُمْ أُمَّةٌ یَدْعُونَ إِلَى‏ الْخَیْرِ وَیَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَ یَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ وَأُوْلَِکَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ‏

And from among you there should be a party who invite to good and enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong, and these it is that shall be successful.” (3:104)

But Muslims have omitted the important duty of ‘Enjoining good and forbidding evil’ and as a result of it, have sold themselves to the mischief makers and rulers and oppressors have gained control on them as a result of which, social and moral corruptions have gained popularity.

In addition to that we have not fulfilled numerous human and religious duties and as a result of that we have become involved in bad circumstances. Therefore, the present circumstances are the result of our role.

Abu Huraira says: I heard the Messenger of Allah (s) say to Thauban: O Thauban, what will you do when communities would invite cooperation of each other in gaining domination over you, just as you call each other to dinner spread? Thauban said: O Messenger of Allah (s), is it due to the paucity of our numbers? He replied: No, on that day you would be in large numbers. On the contrary, it is as a result of sloth and weakness, which has overpowered you. He asked: O Messenger of Allah (s), what do you mean by sloth. He replied: Love of the world and dislike of fighting.[210]

The Messenger of Allah (s) said: As long as two kinds of negligences do not appear among you, you will have proof and guide from Almighty Allah: One is intoxication of ignorance and secondly intoxication with attachment to life. As long as you are not involved in these two things and continue ‘Enjoining of good and forbidding evil’ and perform Jihad in the way of God, you would be guided by Almighty Allah, but when you become infatuated with the world and neglect ‘Enjoining of good and forbidding evil’ and Jihad in the way of God, on that day, those who had been faithful to the Book and Sunnah and called the people to them will be in the rank of the first believers among Emigrants (Muhajireen) and Helpers (Ansar).[211]

Abu Huraira has narrated from the Messenger of Allah (s) that he said: ‘Enjoin good and forbid evil’, otherwise Almighty Allah would make evil and mischievous persons dominant over you. At that time, the righteous would supplicate, but their supplications would not be answered.[212]

What is the solution?

The only solution of this problem is that we should return to true Islam; that we revive the original, life giving and motivating values among us; that we invite the disunited Muslims to unity and formation of a single community. We should revive the philosophy of Jihad, martyrdom and enjoining of good and forbidding of evil and defense of religion and Islamic lands. We should confront the tyrants and their followers and supporters. We should halt the progress of foreign domination and enemies of Islam in Islamic countries and we should take initiative to achieve self sufficiency and independence.

Although in the present circumstances, achieving the final aim is a difficult job. It calls for loyalty, sacrifice, bearing imprisonments, tortures, exile, martyrdom and deprivation; but we have no other option. We should move with sincerity and take steps and Almighty Allah will also help:


یَآ أَیُّهَا الَّذِینَ آمَنُواْ إِن تَنصُرُواْ اللَّهَ یَنصُرْکُمْ وَیُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَکُمْ‏

O you who believe! if you help (the cause of) Allah, He will help you and make firm your feet.” (47:7)

Amirul Momineen (a) said: If you face difficulty and hardships, spend your wealth and if a difficulty appears for your religion, sacrifice your life in defense of religion. You should know that destroyed is the one, who loses his faith and in loss is one, whose faith has been stolen. You should know that after Paradise, there is no poverty and in the presence of Hell fire there is no wealth; and that also a fire, which does not allow any of its captives to escape and the one diseased by it, is never cured.[213]
Who is responsible?

All of us are responsible, because the obligation of defending religion is a universal responsibility. Every person, in all conditions, can help in achieving this important aim. But intellectuals, reformers, jurisprudents and scholars of religion have more responsibility to it; they are supposed to invite people to unity, propagate original and forgotten values of Islam, expose the dangerous conspiracies of the enemies, take up the leadership of the community and prepare Muslims to defend Islam, to establish religion and to apply perfect laws. They should themselves become fully active and also take people with them.

Amirul Momineen (a) said: “Behold, by Him who split the grain (to grow) and created living beings, if people had not come to me and supporters had not exhausted the argument and if there had been no pledge of Allah with the learned to the effect that they should not acquiesce in the gluttony of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed, I would have cast the rope of Caliphate on its own shoulders.”[214]

Imam Husain (a) also said: Moreover, the courses of affairs and rulings are under the control of the scholars, who are the keepers of the legal and the illegal affairs of God. This standing is surely seized from you just because you have gone in different direction away from the right and disagreed about the Sunnah after the clear exposition of the evidences. If you tolerated the harm and bore the burdens for God’s sake, all the affairs of God would arrive at your hands, emanate from you, and devolve upon you.

But you have made the unjust rulers occupy your positions and handed over the affairs of God to them. They are acting suspiciously and pursuing their passions. Your escape from death and adherence to this life, which will sooner or later leave you, gave them a free hand on doing so. Thus, you forsook the weak ones, some of whom were enslaved compulsorily and others were suffering under the control of the straits of livelihood. The unjust rulers therefore are rolling in royalty with their own opinions and disgracing others by their own passions as they follow the examples of the evil and dare the All-omnipotent (God). In every country, they are assigning an eloquent orator on the pulpits of God. Lands are vacant for them as their hands are prevailing upon everything and people are taken as their slaves, because they lack the power to defend themselves. They are either a transgressing tyrant or a domineering, coarse to the weak, and obeyed who does not acknowledge the Initiator, the Recreator. How strange this is! I should be astonished at such affairs, when the lands are prevailed upon by tyrannical cheaters, wrongful bribers or unmerciful governors. God is the judge in our question of disputation and His judgment will pass over our controversy.[215]

Yes, well wishers and scholars of religion are duty bound to take over the leadership of the community and to wave the standard of defense of religion and Islamic values in the world and guide Islam and Muslims on the way of God. If efforts and struggle of all begin, it is hoped that with the help and support of God, the lost glory and honor of Islamic community would return and it would obtain its own position in the world.

Fortunately, signs of Islamic revival are apparent in the world and it is necessary to take advantage of this very sensitive situation.


[204] Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 56
[205] Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 59
[206] Jamius Sahih, Vol. 4, Pg. 468
[207] Jamius Sahih, Vol. 4, Pg. 471
[208] Al-Kafi, Vol. 5, Pg. 55
[209] For more details refer to books of jurisprudence.
[210] Majmauz Zawaid, Vol. 7, Pg. 287
[211] Majmauz Zawaid, Vol. 7, Pg. 270
[212] Majmauz Zawaid, Vol. 7, Pg. 266
[213] Wasailush Shia, Vol. 16, Pg. 192
[214] Nahjul Balagha, Sermon 3
[215] Tohafful Uqool, Pg. 242